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埃塞俄比亚亚的斯凯特马市小学校本督导的实践与问题之教育管理分析

来源: www.tmxfw.com 作者:vicky 发布时间:2019-09-20 论文字数:38666字
论文编号: sb2019090210210527582 论文语言:English 论文类型:硕士毕业论文
本文是一篇教育管理论文,本研究运用 Microsoft Excel 软件对数据进行统计。作者成功回收了 51 份封闭式问卷、3 份开放式问卷与 5 份访谈记录,并对有效问卷进行均值分析。
本文是一篇教育管理论文,本研究发现,影响校本督导的因素包括学校自身以及校本督导员与调查对象自身相关的许多问题,主要表现为教学水平欠佳且缺乏提高教师专业能力与改进教学过程的工作实践。

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the Study
Supervision  practice  has  been  existing  since  the  17th  century.  Along  its  historical development, many changes occurred in different times. Different supervisory purposes, scopes, authority  of  people,  responsibility  to  carry  out  the  task,  types  of  supervision,  etc.  have  been observed.  The  changes  occurred  as  a  result  of  the  development  of  management  theories  in different  times.  The  theories  are  scientific,  human  relation,  neo-scientific,  human  resource  and normative supervision (Oliva and Pawalas 1997).
Early supervision put strong requirement for their teachers and visited classroom frequently and  closely  how  the  teacher  carried  out  instruction.  Any  disappearance  from  instruction  was taken  as  a  reason  for  discharge  of  teachers.  But  as  time  went  on  (beginning  from  the  1870s) supervisory  services  converted  to  watching  weakness  and  to  helping  for  tackling  constraints. Even  then  the  supervisory  service  was  highly  structured,  centralized  and  complex  (Oliva  and Pawlas,  1997).  However,  the  current  system  of  supervision  was  shifted  from  centralization  to decentralization form of governance system of schools. In this case, authority and responsibility were  given  to  the  local  level.  Such  a  current  occurrence  of  school  administration  is  best explained by one of its functions, which is school supervision.
So SBS is an approach in which all respective school members accept the responsibility of improving  the  school  program  and  instruction.  It  is  also  the  principals,  teaching  staff  and ancillaries together making up joint efforts to achieve the school goals.
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1.2 Statement of the Problem
Schools supervision services  occurred in the world several  years ago and have occupied  a fundamental place in the administration of educational activities. They have been useful to solve educational  problems  by  creating  awareness  about  dynamic  methodological  changes  in  the teaching  learning  process.  They  have  been  useful  to  monitor  and  promote  instruction  by enhancing the quality of teachers and the performance of learners (Goble and Porter,1977).
In the school-based supervision system, teachers within department, grades, and groups are developing  skills,  attitudes  and  willingness  to  help  each  other.  Schools,  in  terms  of  the responsibilities for supervision, may execute their duties with the parameters of the three major domains  of  supervision  and  with  specific  functions.  From  this  perspective,  Olive  and  Pawlas (1997) listed four major functions of supervisors: coordination, conclusion, group leadership and evaluation, which are performed within the three domains. When SBS is well done based on the need  of  all  stake  holders,  it  will  be  useful  for  the  development  of  individual  teachers, development  of  the  school  and  fulfillment  of  societal  demands.   In  line  with  this,  West  and Bollington  (1990)  explained  that  the  proper  implementation  of  instructional  supervision  is believed  to  have  a  positive  consequence  for  updating  content  of  curriculum  and  instruction. Furthermore,  Goble  and  Porter  (1977)  expressed  that  teachers’  job  requires  in  service  training and professional support or remedy to fill skill or competence in their fields.  
However,  it  was  surprising  that  SBS  has  given  low  emphasis  in  most  schools  of  Addis Ketema  Sub-city.  As  for  my  experience  in  different  positions  such  as  school  principal,  teacher and educational expert, I observed that teachers were not properly supported by SBSs when staff development,  instructional  development  and  curriculum  development  were  carried  out. Therefore,  if  such  weaknesses  in  supervision  are  prevalent  in  the  primary  schools,  it  can unquestionably  affect  the  quality  of  primary  education  of  the  Sub-city  schools.  Indeed,  these circumstances  initiated  the  researcher  to  launch  the  study  on  the  issue.  Therefore,  the  main function of this thesis was to investigate the practices and  challenges  of  SBS in Addis Ketema Sub-city Primary Schools.
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CHAPTER 2 LITERATUREREVIEW

2.1 Concepts and Definition of Supervision
Olive and Palwas (1997) supervision is defined as a technical service provided by expertise, which  ultimately  results  in  improvement  of  the  learner.  In  the  same  book,  Oliva  and  Pawlas (1997) described supervision as leadership that encourages continuous involvement of teaching and  non-teaching  staff  to  achieve  most  of  the  school  programs.  Additionally,  they  defined supervision  as  any  service  for  teachers,  which  ultimately  ends  up  in  developing  curriculum, instruction  and  learning.  In  light  of  these  definitions,  supervision  can  be  considered  as democratic and cooperative service of teachers both as individuals and in groups for the benefit of students’ achievement.
Dull  (1981)  supervision  is  a  means  of  changing  improvement  in  teaching  and  learning  by doing  together  for  initiation  growth  and  support  to  teachers  for  serving  students  appropriately.    As  it  has  also  been  stated  by  Moor  (1952)  in  Hailesellassie  (2007),  supervision  included  those tasks:  studying  and  changing  the  conditions  which  surrounded  the  teaching  and  learning environment.  This  shows  a  collaborative  approach  which  focuses  on  the  creation  of  attractive environment.
As  Harris  (1998)  cited  in  Atchade,  M.P.  (2007)  defines  supervision  as  the  task  of  school leaders in order to keep or modify the school activities by influencing teachers to attain the goal of teaching. The principle underlying this definition expression, both a concept and a process of instructional supervision, is to improve the instruction delivered to the pupil. 
In general, the definition and concepts of supervision show that it focuses on supporting the teaching  and  learning  process  by  building  the  capacity  of  teachers  and  by  creating  cooperative environment to implement the instruction successfully. 
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2.2 The History of Supervision Perspective in Ethiopia
According to the MOE, Educational Supervision Manual (1987 EC), educational inspection started for the first time in Ethiopian school system in 1934 EC. It was mentioned that inspection was  needed  because  of  the  increasing  number  of  teachers  who  demanded  coordination  and helping them in their teaching.  In 1937 EC, a  central inspectorate was  established headed by a British national named  Lt. command John Miller, assisted by two Ethiopians. Their job was to keep record of the number of students, teachers, and classrooms, as well as to visit some schools in the provinces and write reports.
In 1943 E.C, the first program for training inspectors was started in Addis Ababa Teachers Training  School.  Hence,  a  total  of  twenty-four  inspectors  were  trained  from  1943  to  1946  EC. They  were  assigned  to  inspect  educational  program  as  well  as  financial  accounts  (MOE,  1987 E.C).  According  to  educational  supervision  manual  (1987  EC),  the  training  program  of  school inspectors  was  discounted  in  1946.  However,  due  to  the  increase  in  number  of  schools,  the training  program  was  reopened  in  Kokebe  Tsebha  School  in  1948  EC.  It  continued  for  seven consecutive years. The training combined school directors and inspection together. From 1948 to 1954 EC, a total of 124 inspectors had graduated.
In 1955 E.C, the inspection program was changed into supervision with the aim of focusing only on curriculum and  education programs by participating and supporting the teachers.  Later on,  from  1962  to  1965  E.C,  those  who  were  trained  as  supervisors  were  expected  to  serve  as regular school program and sports, adult educational programs and mass media supervisors.
The  socialist  system  had  shifted  supervision  to  inspection  in  1973  EC.  Accordingly, educational  supervision  was  replaced  by  inspection.  While  in  1986  EC,  the  new  government introduced  education  and  training  policy,  a  way  shifting  supervision  to  inspection.  New departments  of  educational  program  have  been  established  at  federal  and  regional  level  with branches up to Woreda level. 
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CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY .......................................... 20
3.1 Research Approach ................................... 20
3.2 Research Design........................................ 20
3.3 Source of Data.................................... 21
CHAPTER 4 PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS . 25
4.1 Presentation of the Results ............................................ 25
4.1.1 Characteristics of the Respondents ................................ 25
4.1.2 The Practice of SBS ............................... 25
CHAPTER 5 SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION ......................... 46
5.1 Summary ...................... 46
5.2 Conclusion ............................ 48

CHAPTER 4 PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

4.1 Presentation of the Results
4.1.1 Characteristics of the Respondents

In terms of educational background, the demographic information revealed that 110 (58.8%) of  the  teachers  and  60  (57.1%)  of  the  SB  supervisor  respondents  were  diploma  holders.  This implied  that,  the  large  number  of  teachers  and  SB  supervisors  were  in  the  minimum  standard qualification  in  the  sample.  However,  7  (100%)  of  the  principals  and  6  (100%)  of  the  Wereda supervisors’  in  respondents  were  at  the  degree  level  which  fulfilled  the  given  level  of requirement. 
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CHAPTER 5 SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

5.1 Summary
The function of this research was to investigate the practice and problems of school-based supervision in Addis Ketema Sub City primary school. This study was conducted to answer the following basic questions:
1.What are the practices of SBS in primary school?
2.What are the challenges associated with the process of exercising SBS?
3.What will be possible solutions for better implementation of SBS?
In  order  to  conduct  this  research,  a  descriptive  survey  design  research  was  employed. Questionnaire and interview analysis were data-gathering instrument. Information was collected from teachers, and SB supervisors by using a set of questionnaires. In addition, interviews were conducted for principals and Woreda supervisors. The population size was 1016 and 305 of them were selected as the sample of the study. Percentage and mean value were employed to answer the research questions. The major findings were summarized as follow.
reference(omitted)

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